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For example, in focus communities supported by UNICEF in Kwara State, functionality has improved from 53% to 98%, and in Kebbi State the functionality of boreholes has improved from 12% to 88%.
This report provides a framework to understand the changing relationships between urban and rural areas.Water tariffs are low and many water users do not pay their bills.Service providers thus rely mostly on occasional subsidies to cover their operating costs.Lagos has four wastewater treatment plants which have been rehabilitated around 2010.As of 2011, the state planned to build ten new "mega wastewater treatment plants" over the next five years with the help of private investors. The statistics on access to water and sanitation are conflicting, due to divergent definitions, indicators and methodologies applied by different agencies. According to the World Bank, in 2010 water production facilities in Nigeria were “rarely operated to capacity due to broken down equipment, or lack of power or fuel for pumping.” The operating cost of water agencies is increased by the need to rely on diesel generators or even having to build their own power plants, since power supply is erratic.However, when the government apparently failed to pay the operator he walked away, confronting the area with a pollution crisis.
But since the raw water in the lagoon is too polluted, the city gets its water from Ogun River and Owo River.
As people seek to gain food and income from the land, more vulnerable land is used.
The processes of desertification and deforestation mean the environment degrades.
The countries which have the highest percentage of rural population are those which are the poorest.
The land is used to feed the people both in towns and rural areas - LEDCs raise the death rate. This means that there are fewer older people to work on the fields to produce food.
It is focused on one approach that can enhance and better manage rural-urban relationships – the use of rural-urban partnerships.