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Both physical and logical integrity often share many common challenges such as human errors and design flaws, and both must appropriately deal with concurrent requests to record and retrieve data, the latter of which is entirely a subject on its own.
Common methods of ensuring logical integrity include things such as a check constraints, foreign key constraints, program assertions, and other run-time sanity checks.Ensuring physical integrity includes methods such as redundant hardware, an uninterruptible power supply, certain types of RAID arrays, radiation hardened chips, error-correcting memory, use of a clustered file system, using file systems that employ block level checksums such as ZFS, storage arrays that compute parity calculations such as exclusive or or use a cryptographic hash function and even having a watchdog timer on critical subsystems.Physical integrity often makes extensive use of error detecting algorithms known as error-correcting codes.The overall intent of any data integrity technique is the same: ensure data is recorded exactly as intended (such as a database correctly rejecting mutually exclusive possibilities,) and upon later retrieval, ensure the data is the same as it was when it was originally recorded.In short, data integrity aims to prevent unintentional changes to information.These can either be bad sectors that have not yet been marked as bad by the filesystem, or your hard drive may be failing.
Please see Verify Integrity of Game Files for instructions.
As another example, a database management system might be compliant with the ACID properties, but the RAID controller or hard disk drive's internal write cache might not be.
This type of integrity is concerned with the correctness or rationality of a piece of data, given a particular context.
This includes topics such as referential integrity and entity integrity in a relational database or correctly ignoring impossible sensor data in robotic systems.
These concerns involve ensuring that the data "makes sense" given its environment.
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